São Luís, the capital of Maranhão, is the focus of the new paper by the Urban Legal Amazon Project, “Racial and Gender Inequalities in Times of Climate Change: A Social and Spatial Analysis of São Luís (MA).” The study, the fourth of its kind, analyzes the social and racial vulnerabilities of the population of the region due to the impact caused by climate change, such as unhealthy occupations, without income, poor water and air quality and food insecurity.

“When analyzing the (lack of) access to piped water, a gender gradient is observed, where it is the women who encounter this lack of access the most. Among them, the ethnic and racial inequalities are highlighted, where the indigenous, black and mixed-race women are the ones who are most affected by the lack of access to water. This same pattern is seen when we observe other forms of non-access to this basic right, such as the use of wells or springs without pipes,” says a passage from the document.

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